One of the most used forms in the current mining for the separation and classification of fine and coarse is the hydrocyclone, called also cyclone, this equipment works in conjunction with a pump to be able to do its work.
The equipment is formed by a cone in the lower part and in the upper part by a cylinder, so the low flow of the cone part is the output of the coarse and the overflow of the cylindrical part is the output of the fines, passing through the center of the fall of the coarse, that move close to the walls, the fines pass suspended in the liquid through the middle part of the vortex generated for the centrifugal force contained within the hydrocyclone.
The two outputs of the hydrocyclone are known as; APEX which is the output of the coarse and the other as Vortex Finder which is the output of the fines, the purpose of the Vortex is to separate the fine material from the coarse and its width determines the separation point.
The cyclone’s feeding volume is defined by these two exits and should not be exceeded since if the Apex’s measurement is too small for the flow fed, it will not allow the exit of the coarse ones and this will cause the fines to mix and come out in the lower part decreasing the efficiency of the hydrocyclone.
The size of the Apex in relation to the volume of feeding is the one that generates the necessary pressure to push the fines to the exit of the superior part, to elevate this pressure it requires a greater feeding, or a reduction of the diameter of exit of the low, as the pressure decreases, the amount of coarse material in the overflow increases the likelihood of more pressure being generated, because the volume in the feed is greater than the discharge capacity of the Apex.